The Future of Foreign Correspondents The Future Role of Foreign Correspondents in the New Age Media Introduction The explicit role of a foreign correspondent is to act, in the new age media, as the “middle man”, an intermediary between countries. The importance of this role is highlighted by the detrimental impacts of globalisation. In one respect, many hypothesis that the foreign correspondent is an “endangered species”. In world where at the click of a button citizens can report and inform past their own national borders many question the necessity of international reporting. With technological discoveries on the rise, “the old model of international reporting” is transforming and challenging the role of foreign correspondents world wide. On the opposite end of the spectrum, many commentators rejoice in this new age media: increased productivity and efficiency, broader scope and easier access to information. Nonetheless, it is clear that the future of foreign correspondents is evolving. In the following report we will discuss the impacts cost, technology and globalisation and public interest has on the future of foreign reporters. The Impact Cost has on the Employment of Foreign Correspondents For newspapers, a rise in costs has dramatically impacted on Foreign Bureaus and the global role of foreign correspondents. As Andrew Currah postulates: ‘no matter how powerful the philanthropic spirit or quest for power, the practical costs of journalism demand a robust economic model (which is looking increasingly unstable in the present context’. And so, in our “hyper-mediated” world, the increasingly high costs of foreign reporting positions foreign correspondents and bureaus at the forefront of budget cuts. In a 2007 study for the Harvard Joan Shorenstein Center by Jill Carroll, ‘Foreign News Coverage: The US Media’s Undervalued Asset’, Carroll reveals that to run a basic foreign Bureau costs an annual average of $200-300,000. According to one UK correspondent, on the ground, the cost of a single story, when including fixers/translators is £5-6,000. Further, between 2000 to 2006 there was a 30% decrease in small US newspapers and a 10% decline in larger news corporations. And so, the fear held by many commentators and journalists alike is that with the shrinking of foreign posts abroad and international reporting there will be an exponential decline in the quantity and quality of the news. However, authors Hamilton and Jenner disagree with this consensus: “…do these perceived declines [in traditional FCs] accurately measure the quantity and quality of foreign reporting that actually exists? We think not. The alarm, we propose, is based on an anachronistic and static model of what foreign correspondence is and who foreign correspondents are”. The Media Alliance Trust took a study on the number of foreign desks and correspondents in a number of newspapers. The Daily Mirror and The Sun do not have a foreign desk. The Daily Mail, however, has 10 foreign correspondents whereas the Guardian and the Observer have 18 correspondents. An editor of the Guardian attests that although there is a rise in journalist staff the rate of foreign correspondents has remained constant. The Telegraph has 20 foreign correspondents and like the Guardian and Observer have foreign desks worldwide in countries like Tokyo and the USA. According to www.journalism.org, PewResearch, Washington has, as a result of growing technology and national issues, at least 40% of all foreign correspondents in the world. Ultimately, from the data above it can be assumed that the future employment of foreign correspondents is highly influenced by cost. VIDEO: Michael Crutcher at http://youtu.be/jhQaNSO_kk0 by Harriet Allan The Affect Technology and Globalisation has the transformation of Foreign Correspondents Globalisation, the “growing interconnectedness of the world”, through the expansion of mass media communication hugely impacts on the futures of foreign correspondents abroad. Specifically, the continual advancements in technology have altered the way in which foreign correspondents act as intermediaries in our world. The rise of online newspapers and citizen journalism, through social media, has reconstructed what it means to be an international reporter. However, many commentators argue that this has lead to a shrinking of the “original journalism profession”. Undoubtedly, technology technology is changing the way information is obtained and increasing productivity and quantity of foreign news. An international reporter partnered with a phone and laptop can achieve instant news coverage from anywhere around the world. And so, commentators agree that in the new age media the greater technological opportunities gives rise to the evolution of freelance journalism. The escalation of social media allows freelancers and independent persons to no longer be dependant on news organisations to obtain and spread information. That being so, although the rapid advancement in technology allows for “speed and vividness” when foreign reporting reduces time spent by reporters to “watch, think, listen and compose”. Jerusalem Correspondent and Former Foreign Editor at the Guardian Harriet Sherwood questions the ability of foreign correspondents to keep up with today’s new media platform. She states: “The wire services … provide comprehensive, rapidly updated and usually accurate coverage of the main news events on a given day. So a correspondent’s role is surely to go beyond that, to dig out the stories that aren’t immediate ‘news’, to provide context and analysis, to allow those whose voices are routinely drowned out by the big ‘players’ to be heard. But that requires an investment of time (and often money) which inevitably has become harder with the instant and constant demands of digital journalism”. In a Reuter Danish Study, as shown in Figure One, it was found that the employment of international reporters is on the decline. Between 1998 to 2012, foreign reporters in the foreign reporters decreased in from 60 to 39. This clearly exhibits a rise in technological advancement and a decline in the necessary foreign correspondents. Therefore, technology and globalisation are determining factors when considering the future of foreign correspondents. The Influence Public Interest has in the Production of Foreign News and by extension Foreign Correspondents The transformation of the foreign correspondent is hugely influenced by trends within the media. In a globalised world, however, the importance and value of international news and reporting is paramount. With the increasing interconnectedness through communication, migration and travel the issues in Asia, the USA and Europe directly impact everyday lives. Academics, Journalists and Politicians alike all aspire to educate everyday citizens, to help people to understand global issues. However, the question remains: In comparison to celebrity gossip and ‘headline’ pieces is the public interest really interested? The PewResearch Journalism Project did a study on the “changing content: what topics are losing space and resources”. The goal of PewResearch is to evaluate the state of the media and information produced in the new digital platform. Figure Two shows a data visualisation tool known as an infograpic. On the right hand side, the three circles represent the positions of newsroom executives in regards to foreign news. The blue circle represents 65% of newsroom executives who say their foreign news coverage has dropped over the last three years. The orange circle portrays the 46% of newsroom executives who have reduced resources, given to foreign correspondents, over the last three years. And lastly, the light blue circle symbolises the 10% of newsroom executives who deem foreign reporting to be “very essential”. The left hand-side shows the topics of public interest in the news from 1986-2006. On average, 39% of people “very closely” follow disasters, 34% Money, 33% Conflict, 22% Political News, 18% Tabloid News and lastly Foreign News is only “very closely” covered by 17% of people. Reuters Editor of Political and General News Sean Maguire delves into why in order to promote public interest and faith the number of foreign correspondents have decreased: “We employ a lot fewer Brits than we used to as we shift further away from the old colonial/commonwealth model of white males spending a career moving from assignment to assignment. Apart from cost, issues of equity and fairness in employment are driving that shift. Additionally news consumers … demand higher levels of instant expertise in reporting – to deliver that you need correspondents who speak a local language, are immersed in local political and economic life”. Therefore, it is clear from the data above that foreign news is on the decline and by extension the role of foreign correspondents is in jeopardy. Foreign correspondents play a significant role within the media. Irrespective of positive aspects of the new digital age and globalisation, cost and public interest weigh heavily on the future of foreign correspondents. It is clear that foreign correspondents must evolve with the new digital era otherwise their important role as a mediated, a bridge of cultural understanding will be undermined. Figure One Figure Two

Advertisements

The Power of Social Media by Rhiannon Kallio

Screen Shot 2014-05-23 at 11.27.44 am

INTRODUCTION:blissnss

The rise of digital technology has facilitated connections and interactions with one and other through the Internet. Hillary Preece of California Polytechnic State University in her 2012 study of examining social media use in fashion found that social media has become integrated as part of mainstream culture and has had an undeniable effect on how a lot industries work. It is an emerging platform and public venue that enables brand recognition and promotes transparency and consumer feedback. Professor Iris Mohr of St Johns University New York in her 2013 study of the impact of social media on the fashion industry states that the industry has embraced social media with whole-heartedness, and it’s use as a tool has surged dramatically since 2009. Preece (2012) states that its adoption of social media has lead to exponential feedback by consumers who recommend styles and trends that ultimately designers and brands more popular. This report will examine social media’s effect on the fashion industry. It will look in depth into the new areas of journalism that social media has pushed fashion into. It will also shine light on what skills future journalists will inevitably require to be part of this changing fashion industry.

HOW DOES SOCIAL MEDIA WORK:

Preece (2013) states that when referred to social media is all the websites or online platforms that enable interaction between those of the fashion industry and customers using the latest social networking technology.Tweets, blogs and social networking sites like Instagram, Pinterest, Facebook and Twitter, enabl brands to participate in these trends online and create their connection to audiences. Social media following has grown exponentially in recent years. As of March 2014, there were, according to Social Media News,loot a leader in social interpersonal media statistics, in Australia alone 13.2 million active Facebook users, 2.5million active Twitter users, 1.6 million active Instagram users and approximately half a million Pinterest users. These sites have increased the interest in word of mouth and viral marketing.
Word of mouth –  communication between consumers – is one of the most influential sources of information for consumers in the vast space of the Internet and the plethora of users online, states Mohr (2013). Word of mouth can be viral, such as the 2009 Witchery ‘Man in the Jacket’ Youtube video campaign.

Facebook and Twitter are said to be word-driven social media sites. Facebook has maintained its popularity throughout the years. Twitter is noted for it’s ability to facilitate public conversations, through it’s reply and retweet buttons and straightforward website. Mohr states that the rapid spread of information unites people to a common sphere to exchange views These word-driven social media sites have updated traditional media outlets and values, according to Thomas Roach of Mining Media International (2012). Furthermore Roach (2012) states that nowadays, the latest news can be written and sent out to traditional media sources and then posted online, shared onto a Facebook page where the story can be additionally tweeted or shared with a link back to tScreen Shot 2014-05-21 at 12.00.03 pmhe original source.

However not all social networking websites rely on their word-dominated content, some pertain a visual-orientated audience. These networking sites along with Facebook and Twitter are also extremely simple to use fit for mobile devices. Instagram is a photo-sharing application that enables users to upload their own images to, and according to Preece (2012), “visually catalog life’s adventures” along with following and liking other users streams. Pinterest is a website thatenables users to ‘pin’ inspiration like pictures and links of interest to virtual pin boards, with liking and sharing capabilities. Preece (2012) also provides that brands are realizing their audiences are spending more time in these new, more visually driven networks like example Instagram and Pinterest.
Traditional media publications have embraced social media in an attempt to engage the fashion public. In their 2012 research journal on public relations and fashion, Leah Cassidy and Kate Fitch of Murdoch University provide that top fashion magazines utilize Twitter for ‘see it first, tweet it first’ fashion news, Instagram for a behind the scenes looks and spoilers and Facebook for feedback.

THE RISE OF THE FASHIONScreen Shot 2014-05-21 at 5.31.58 pm BLOGGER:

With 152 million blogs worldwide in 2013 according to business blogger Brandon Gaille, and new ones being created every half a second, equipped with smartphones, stylish clothes and a camera, fashion bloggers are the offspring of the social media revolution. Originally
, they emerged as fashion commentators in the unchartered territory of blogging platforms. Slowly they began influencing trends and shaping brands through their use of the Internet. Their knowledge that web content is shifting to attract audiences visually is a key to the success of their blogs, with most focusing more on their image than words, as seen in the popular Song of Style blog.
Now bloggers are a significant presence in the fashion industry. Brands view bloggers as prized gems and new-age journalists, wizards in their use of social media. From being employed by prestigious fashion magazines such as Vogue to collaborating with designers and modeling, bloggers have marked their descent on the industry.

For journalists and print magazines however, this means a new set of skills need to be acquired to survive is this shift to online content. Business Insider Australia in 2011 states that fashion magazines are not however failing, but fashion blogs are edging out magazines in terms of online influence. Edison Research, who found in a 2013 study that blogs are most influential to those shopper’s who deem fashion to be extremely important to them, corroborates this statement. There are millions of active style blogs worldwide, and are effective due to their different individual points of view that challenge the traditional magazines and critics.

HOW DOES SOCIAL MEDIA INFLUENCE:

Fashion brands are using these social media channels to go into depth in regards to their clients, personalizing their experience and increasing loyalty states So Adaptive (2013), a leading social personalization service. Fashion houses all have websites and Twitter, Facebook and Instagram at the least, and offer intimate behind-the-scenes looks and boodaboodeespecial glances of collections and shows. Many offer e-shops. Runway shows are now streamed live online, attracting worldwide audiences. Supermodel Cara Delevingne was the first model to take an iPhone video on the runway, instantly uploading it onto her Instagram, demonstrating the integration of social media and the fashion industry. With Internet streaming worldwide, social media also provides no cost advertising for fashion brands, and they are aware of it. Sydney Morning Herald reported in February 2014 on the Marc Jacobs ‘Daisy Marc Jacobs Tweet Shop.’ Instead of trading dollars, a new form of currency was devised; for every Instagram, tweet or post that included the hash tag #MJDaisyChain, a free sample was given, with a weekly handbag giveaway, earning more exposure than any highway billboard.

Sydney Morning Herald also reported that Tommy Hilfiger invited twenty local US Instagramers to the label’s runway show, with backstage access to record the happening’s behind-the-scenes, throwing away the days when it took months for catwalk shows to be displayed to public.

The viral Witchery ‘Man in the Jacket’ Youtube campaign, as mentioned previously demonstrates social media engagement. The story, which was later, revealed to be a hoax, was of a girl trying to find a man she met in a café who left his Witchery Man jacket behind. According to Cassidy and Fitch of Murdoch University (2012), the video received 60,000 views on Youtube, gained mainstream media attention and estimated to make over $8 million dollars in free advertising.

However, with an awareness of the opportunities social media proposes, brands can now influence these fashion trends themselves. Fashion brands designs are not always approved and embraced by consumers willingly, and therefore the ability to keep in mind worldwide trends enables them to understand what the consumer wants. According to Hilary Preece of California Polytechnic University (2012) designers and brands utilize predictive analytic tools to compare fashion trends with topic discussions to forecast future trends and get real feedback on their upcoming designs.

PLACEHOLDER

Click on  picture for link to Video.         

CONCLUSION:

It can be concluded that social media in the fashion industry is revolutionary. The word-driven social media sites Facebook and Instagram have facilitated public conversations and given traditional media outlets new ways of content distribution. Instagram and Pinterest fuel the Screen Shot 2014-05-22 at 9.35.41 pmpopularity associated with visually driven networks. These and many other social networks have encouraged and changed the way designers and brands interact with their customers. In conjunction with these networks is the fashion blogger, who are proficient in their use of online social network platforms. They have made a significant impact on the fashion industry by proposing new points of view and challenging fashion critics, as well as creating and influencing trends. Brands have also used these social media tools in different ways when connecting with their customers as seen by Marc Jacobs’s social media currency, Tommy Hilfiger’s connections with local Instagramers and Witchery’s Youtube campaign who all gained free advertising by embracing social media. Analytical tools assess social media and allow brands to predict future trends receive feedback. Social media has also enabled brands to broadcast runway shows live and created the possibility of intimacy between themselves and their consumer’s through behind-the-scenes content in their social media networks. Social media has proposed new skills in which future journalists will need to learn. With social media still evolving, its influence on the fashion industry can only grow bigger and thrive.

LIST OF REFERENCES

Allure Media. 2014. “The Fashion Blogs Are Beating Vogue at Online Influence.” Accessed 22nd May 2014. http://www.businessinsider.com.au/the-fashion-blogs-who-are-beating-vogue-at-online-influence-2011-7

California Polytechnic State University. 2014. “Examining Social Media Use in Fashion: The Need For Industry Standards.” Accessed 20th May 2014. http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/joursp/51/

Cassidy, L and Fitch K. 2012. “Beyond the Catwalk: Fashion Public Relations and Social Media in Australia.” Asia Pacific Public Relations Journal vol. 14(1) Accessed 19th May 2014. http://www.deakin.edu.au/arts-ed/apprj/articles/14-cassidy-fitch.pdf

Cowling, D. 2014. “Australian Social Media Statistics.” Accessed 20th May 2014. http://www.socialmedianews.com.au

Edison Research. 2013. “How Social Media Influences Fashion.” Accessed 19th May 2014. http://www.edisonresearch.com/?s=fashion

Facebook. 2014. “Carven.” Accessed 20th May 2014. https://www.facebook.com/carven.paris?fref=ts

Facebook. 2014. “Victoria’s Secret.” Accessed 20th May 2014. https://www.facebook.com/victoriassecret?ref=ts&fref=ts

Fairfax Media. 2009. “Fake ‘Heidi’ A Real Success: Success.” Accessed 21st May 2014. http://www.smh.com.au/news/technology/biztech/fake-heidi-a-real-success-agency/2009/01/28/1232818585276.html

Fairfax Media. 2014. “Social Media Fuels a Fashion Revolution.” Accessed 22nd May 2014. http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/fashion/social-media-fuels-a-fashion-revolution-20140212-32gqk.html

Fashion Brands TV. 2014. “The Fashion Industry And Their Attitude Towards Social Media.” Accessed 21 May 2014. http://www.fashionbrandstv.com/the-fashion-industry-and-their-attitude-towards-social-media.php

FOHR Card. 2014. “The Fashion Blog Directory.” Accessed 19th May 2014. http://www.fohrcard.com/

Instagram. 2014. “Cara Delevingne.” Accessed 19th May 2014. http://instagram.com/caradelevingne

Leverage. 2014. “Social Media Comparison Infographic.” Accessed 19th May 2014. https://leveragenewagemedia.com/blog/social-media-infographic/

Mohr, I. 2013. “The Impact of Social Media on the Fashion Industry.” Journal of Applied Business and Economics vol. 15(2) Accessed 18th May 2014. http://www.na-businesspress.com/JABE/MohrI_Web15_2_.pdf

Piktochart. 2014. “Pikto Themes.” Accessed 22nd May 2014. https://magic.piktochart.com/themes

Roach, T. 2012. “Tweeting the Press Release.” Rock Products, 115(1). Accessed 20th May 2014. http://rock.epubxp.com/i/51418/33

So Adaptive. 2013. “The Social Media Influence on the Fashion Industry.” Accessed 19th May 2014. http://www.soadaptive.com/the-social-media-influence-on-the-fashion-industry/

Twitter. 2014. “Michael Kors.” Accessed 22nd May 2014. https://twitter.com/MichaelKors

Vas J Morgan. 2014. “Cara Delevingne Runway at Giles Show.” Accessed 22nd May 2014. http://www.vasjmorgan.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/kendall-jenner-cara-delevingne-walk-runway-at-giles-show-121.jpg

WPVirtuoso. 2013. “How Many Blog Are On The Internet.” Accessed 22 May 2014, http://www.wpvirtuoso.com/how-many-blogs-are-on-the-internet/

 

WORD COUNT: 1561

SHORTHAND LINK: THE POWER OF SOCIAL MEDIA

(http://app-qut.shorthand.com/export/5d4c3648adb94f129b78b6e269da826a/index.html)